Distinct African Swine Fever Virus Shedding in Wild Boar Infected with Virulent and Attenuated Isolates
Vaccines 2020/12. 8(4):767
Since the reappearance of African swine fever virus (ASFV), the disease has spread in an unprecedented animal pandemic in Eurasia. ASF currently constitutes the greatest global problem for the swine industry. The wild boar (Sus scrofa) in which the pathogen has established wild self-sustaining cycles, is a key reservoir for ASFV, signifying that there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine against this virus. Current scientific debate addresses whether live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), which have shown promising results in cross-protection of susceptible hosts, may be feasible for vaccinations carried out owing to safety concerns. The objective of this study was, therefore, to compare the ASFV shedding in wild boar infected with virulent and attenuated (LAV) isolates. Different shedding routes (oral fluid and feces) and viremia rates were characterized in wild boar inoculated with Lv17/WB/Rie1 isolate (n = 12) when compared to those inoculated with the virulent Armenia07 isolate (n = 17). In general, fewer animals infected with the Lv17/WB/Rie1 isolate tested positive for ASFV in blood, oral fluid, and feces in comparison to animals infected with the virulent Armenia07 isolate. The shedding patterns were characterized in order to understand the transmission dynamics. This knowledge will help evaluate the shedding of new LAV candidates in wild boar populations, including the comparison with gene deletion mutant LAVs, whose current results are promising.
Kosowska A, Cadenas-Fernández E, Barroso S, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, Barasona JA.