Cell Lines for the Development of African Swine Fever Virus Vaccine Candidates: An Update
Vaccines 2022/3, 10(5):707
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of a highly lethal disease in both domestic and wild pigs. The virus has rapidly spread worldwide and has no available licensed vaccine. An obstacle to the construction of a safe and efficient vaccine is the lack of a suitable cell line for ASFV isolation and propagation. Macrophages are the main targets for ASFV, and they have been widely used to study virus–host interactions; nevertheless, obtaining these cells is time-consuming and expensive, and they are not ethically suitable for the production of large-scale vaccines. To overcome these issues, different virulent field isolates have been adapted on monkey or human continuous cells lines; however, several culture passages often lead to significant genetic modifications and the loss of immunogenicity of the adapted strain. Thus, several groups have attempted to establish a porcine cell line able to sustain ASFV growth. Preliminary data suggested that some porcine continuous cell lines might be an alternative to primary macrophages for ASFV research and for large-scale vaccine production, although further studies are still needed. In this review, we summarize the research to investigate the most suitable cell line for ASFV isolation and propagation.